Wednesday, May 11, 2022


The intent is clear. The party-list system, an innovative mechanism enshrined in the 1987 Constitution, aims to assure the various sectors of the Philippine society, particularly the disadvantaged groups, of representation in the highest lawmaking body of the Republic. 

After the 1986 People Power Revolution and the return to a bicameral Congress, sectoral representatives remained in the House but were appointed by the president from 1987 to 1998.

The party-list system is intended to democratize political power by giving political parties that cannot win in legislative district elections a chance to win seats in the House of Representatives. The 1987 Constitution mandates that party-list representatives shall constitute 20% of all seats in the House of Representatives.

On May 11, 1998, the first election for party-list representation was held simultaneously with the national elections. According to Comelec’s rules then, groups that received 2% of the total party-list votes earned one party-list seat in Congress, with additional seats for every 2% thereafter.

However, the Supreme Court has twice changed the formula for determining winning party-list groups: first in 2000 and then in 2009.

The high court has also gone back and forth on what constitutes a party-list group, originally ruling in 2001 that only those from the marginalized and underrepresented sectors could participate in the system but reversing this in 2013, deciding that organizations “do not need to organize along sectoral lines and do not need to represent ‘any marginalized and underrepresented’ sector.”

Partial and unofficial tallies from the polls show that 1-Rider Party-list has amassed the second-highest number of votes in the Party-list race, next only to the Erwin Tulfo-led Anti-Crime and Terrorism Through Community Involvement and Support (ACT-CIS) Party-list.

Col. Bosita is the first nominee of 1-Rider, meaning his inclusion in the House of Representatives in the upcoming 19th Congress is assured.

With this development, Bosita is being greeted by his supporters and well-wishers on the Facebook page of Riders’ Safety Advocates of the Philippines (RSAP), which he founded back in 2016.

Tingog Party-List, which bats for the welfare of Eastern Visayas residents, landed in third place in the party-list race as of Tuesday with 98.09 percent of election returns processed.

Represented by Rep. Yedda Kittilsvedt-Romualdez—wife of House Majority Leader Martin Romualdez—in the current Congress, Tingog is guaranteed at least two seats in the House of Representatives by garnering 871,541 votes as of last night.

Unfortunately, what should have been a better-defined embodiment of the party-list system appeared to be the further source of controversies and ambiguities which necessitated judicial adjudication and interpretation.

This paper, by way of review of related literature, presents the intentions, as well as the apprehensions of those who drafted the legal framework of the party-list system, the difficulties met by the party-list contenders, and the legal issues that arose from the 1998 experience. With these, it is hoped that changes in the law and in the attitude of the electorate that will transform a well-intended mechanism into something that will truly work for the Filipino people, shall be realized sooner than expected.

As a result, the promise of democratization may be realized as the party-list system "encourages the formation of genuine political parties representing organizations and groups long-excluded from political process, armed with definitive sets of principles and accountable to their members.

Monday, July 26, 2021

Summary of Duterte’s SONA 2021

President Rodrigo Duterte delivered his sixth and last State of the Nation Address (SONA) on Monday afternoon, July 26.

This was Duterte's second SONA to be done hybrid, with some guests physically present, and some joining through video calls. He delivered his speech against the backdrop of the local transmission of the more virulent COVID-19 Delta variant, yet 350 people were at the plenary hall of the Batasang Pambansa – seven times the number in 2020.

Here were quick notes during the SONA:

Duterte: Economy growing until COVID-19 'stole everything'

"Our economy, with investor confidence, was poised to leapfrog into the company of the world's fastest-growing economies until [the] COVID-19 pandemic stole everything."

Duterte calls for passage of military pension reform bill

"In 2018, we raised the salaries of our military and the uniformed a level commensurate to the critical role they play."

He then asks Congress to pass the military and uniformed personnel pension reform bill.

Duterte wants free legal assistance for soldiers, police

Duterte calls for a law on free legal assistance for members of the Armed Forces of the Philippines and Philippine National Police "to help them from charges arising from incidents related to the performance of their official duty."

Duterte lauds NTF-ELCAC

"With the creation of the National Task Force to End Local Communist Armed Conflict (NTF-ELCAC), we have made great strides in addressing the root causes of this conflict.... We have worked towards the sustainable rehabilitation of communities where communists used to operate."

Duterte on communists: 'Kindly shoot them dead'

"My orders to you: If you see them walking around, kindly shoot them dead, and I will be happy. Anyway, you're only charged in the ICC together with me, so what is the problem of adding another one, another idiot Filipino who has caused great damage to our country?"

Duterte says Sotto can become 'good VP'

Duterte on Senate President Vicente Sotto III: "He is a good man, he can become a good vice president."

Duterte orders completion of Marawi rehabilitation

"Our victory in Marawi is also a testament to how the Filipinos' patriotism is far stronger.... There is no room for lawlessness in this country."

Duterte again talks about his 'drug war'

"Our unyielding campaign led to the surrender of millions of drug dependents and neutralization, capture, and prosecution of thousands of drug personalities."

Duterte on MRT3: No more 'misery of public commuting'

Duterte says the comprehensive tax reform program "enabled us to fund critical infrastructure programs."

"Today, we can see the tangible results. MRT3...was a horror for the daily commuters to endure in the past."

"The waiting time between trains has been significantly reduced.... We have taken away the misery of public commuting."

Duterte cites infra projects in provinces

"Beyond Metro Manila, we are pursuing several high-impact projects."

"We have brought equitable development."

He cites the Sorsogon City Coastal Road: "Mahal ko ang Bicolano."

"Why is Davao last? Sabi ko, unahin ninyo ang buong Pilipinas... I told the economic managers and the DPWH, pati si Art Tugade sa [Department of Transportation], unahin ninyo ang Luzon at ibang areas sa Mindanao.... To the Davaoeños, you must understand, we cannot really – kasi taga-diyan ako eh.... Sabi ko, 'Make Davao the last priority.'"

Duterte mention Ease of Doing Business Act

"We also sought to make long lines a thing of the past by streamlining government processes."

Duterte: 'You cannot stop corruption'

"'Yung pastillas [scam] sa airport, there were 43 personnel involved. I fired them all. Talagang pinaalis ko sa gobyerno."

"Corruption is endemic in government. You cannot stop corruption. Nobody can stop corruption unless you overthrow government completely."

Duterte: 'We will assert what is rightfully ours'

"In [the] international arena, we have rigorously pursued an independent foreign policy, centered on the promotion and protection of our core national interest."

"We continue to work with all nations and seek partnerships that work."

Duterte insists Hague ruling may lead to war with China

"Ito bang arbitral ruling.... America and some Filipinos, brilliant Filipinos I would say, keep on pushing for something which I do not know.... Ano ba ang gusto ninyo? What will I do with a document that does not bind China because they were never a part of that arbitration?"

"Ano gusto nila, makipag-giyera, do something? Do you want war against China?"

Duterte: Coconut farmers to benefit from coco levy fund

"My administration has worked with Congress to pass the Coconut Farmers and Industry Trust Fund Act. We have returned also the coco levy fund to its true and rightful owners, our coconut farmers."

Duterte claims ABS-CBN owes gov't billions in taxes

"Wala akong problema sa ABS-CBN. They got my money, they wanted to return it...but they printed all the garbage, including my daughter as a drug trafficker. Nilamon ko na lang lahat 'yun.... But itong ano, they are cheating government, billions in taxes, and they still want that frequency because 'yan ang pinag-aawayan. I will give it to a Filipino na gustong mag-gawa ng tama and will pay."

Duterte: PH ramped up COVID-19 testing, facilities

"We ramped up our testing capacity. We now have more than 260 accredited laboratories nationwide which are capable of conducting at least 50,000 tests daily. All regions now can conduct their own COVID-19 tests."

"We established over 9,000 temporary monitoring and treatment facilities across the country."

Duterte seeks patience from Filipinos waiting for vaccines

"I ask for patience from those who are next in line.... More COVID-19 vaccines are arriving and you will soon have your turn."

Duterte: 'We cannot afford more lockdowns'

"We have spent enormous amounts of resources to build our capacity to overcome this pandemic. We cannot afford more lockdowns."

Duterte mentions threat of COVID-19 Delta variant

"Today is my last State of the Nation Address, but this is by no means my swan song. I will never cease to implore Congress to pass vital and critical legislation."

Duterte vows to restore jobs

"Rest assured that we will exert every effort to restore the lost livelihood of our countrymen."

He added that the government will work to "increase employability" of Filipinos and "help hardest-hit sectors."

Duterte asks Congress to amend several laws

The President mentioned the Foreign Investments Act, Public Service Act, and Retail Trade Liberalization Act as laws that need to be amended.

Duterte asks Congress to create disease prevention, virology agencies

"We hope to pursue the creation of... the Center for Disease Prevention and Control and the Virology and Vaccine Institute of the Philippines." –

Friday, July 16, 2021


DPWH has assured the completion of the controversial Cutcut Flyover in Angeles City.

DPWH Third District Engineering Office Chief Engr. Arleen Beltran said the first two phases of the infrastructure project was already completed on June 2, 2021, ahead of its September 2021 expiry date.

The 2020-2021 General Appropriations Act has allotted P50 million while the United Project Management Office of the Department of Public Works and Highways has allotted another P50 million for the project.

The first two phases on the construction of the four-lane 700-lineal-meter flyover cover the bored piles and columns in the area.

Beltran also clarified the funding for the project amid concerns that there were no budget appropriated for the completion of the project.

She said the substructure of the Cutcut Flyover was initially funded in the CY 2020 General Appropriations Act (GAA) under "For Comprehensive Release," and funded again in CY 2021 GAA but was tagged "For Later Release."

"The locally-funded project is enrolled under the Multi-Year Obligational Authority with a total project cost of P600 million, which means that budget will be released every year until the completion of the project," said Beltran.

She added that the construction for the succeeding phases of the project will depend on the release of the budget.

“The local DPWH office was authorized to enter into a multi-year contract for the full project cost, and we would like to guarantee that the amount programmed for this multi-year project is included in their budget proposal for the ensuing years until its completion,” Beltran said.

The construction of the first phase of the Cutcut Flyover started on December 9, 2020 and the second phase on January 18, 2021, and were both completed in June 2021.

A total of 40.613 million was allotted from the 2021 GAA for the construction of the foundation of the flyover, while the project received P59.387 million in the previous year.

The whole project is expected to be completed in 2023 but will still depend on the timing of the releasing of the budget.

In the meantime, Mayor Lazatin urged the DPWH to install protective barriers and reflectors along the road to prevent accident in the area especially at night.

The vital intersection connects Porac town to Angeles City and the City of San Fernando to Fil-Am Friendship Circumferential Road all the way to the Clark Freeport Zone.

The Cutcut Flyover is expected to ease traffic congestion in-bound and out-bound along Porac, Filipino-American Friendship Highway and Rizal Extension in Angeles City

Friday, January 29, 2021


Through the support of Senator Lito Lapid, First District Congressman Carmelo "Jon" Lazatin II, DPWH-Central Luzon Regional Director Roseller Guiao and DPWH-Pampanga 3rd DEO District Engineer Tito Salvador, the project aims to ease traffic congestion in-bound and out-bound in Porac and Filipino-American Friendship Highway and Rizal Extension in Angeles City. 

Senator Lito Lapid said the volume of traffic in Barangay Cutcut particularly the intersection near the Holy Family Academy necessitated the need for a flyover to ensure smooth flow of traffic.

Lapid said the flow of traffic will improve in the intersection that connects Porac town to Angeles City and the City of San Fernando to Friendship Circumferential Road all the way to the Clark Freeport Zone.

Senator Lapid will provide funding for the construction of the Angeles-Porac flyover and the Angeles City Sports Complex.

Porac Mayor Jaime "Jing" V. Capil and Angeles City Mayor Carmelo "Pogi'" Lazatin, Jr. together with engineers of the Department of Public Works and Highways (DPWH)-Central Luzon met on last Friday, January 22, 2021, to discuss the concrete flyover project in Barangay Cutcut along Porac-Angeles Road. 

Residents of Angeles City and Porac town will also benefit from the proposed flyover while passengers of the Clark International Airport that will come from these areas can easily access the airport.

Sen. Lapid made the announcement during the opening of the Fortunegate Casino inside the Clark Freeport. Lapid hails from Porac town.

Wednesday, November 4, 2020

Angeles Electric Corporation

Businesses come and go. But not for these Kapampangan enterprises founded by visionaries who poured in blood, sweat and tears to build these commercial establishments that have--with a dash of luck--become icons of economic success in the province's business landscape. Let's see some of these businesses that are still in existence and continue to endure to this very day.

Angeles City’s main power provider, the Angeles Electric Corp., began as Angeles Electric Light and Power Plant on July 10, 1923, a project of Don Juan Nepomuceno and wife, Nena Gomez. The couple—who already had an ice plant, and would go on to found other ventures like Holy Angel Academy, a softdrinks factory, a subdivision and a commercial shopping complex---thought that bringing  power to a community, including light to the church—was a great idea. With a 2,000 pesos down payment on a Php 72,000 power plant machines—the Nepomucenos set forth to establish the electric company that would serve Angeles continuously, except during the dark days of the war. It was incorporated in 1959 as Angeles Electric Corp. and the institution continues to provide power service, efficiently and competently-- not only to the city but also to nearby areas, today.

The company came to be known as Angeles Electric Corporation (AEC) when it was incorporated and registered with the Securities and Exchange Commission in 1959. Today, after more than 90 years in operation, AEC continues to move forward and remain at par with industry leaders.

Angeles Electric Corporation holds the distinction of being the first electric utility company to achieve 100% electrification of all areas within its franchise coverage.  This happened in 1969 with the conversion of distribution voltage from 2,400v to 13,800v that enabled the company to extend its power lines to the remotest barangay of Angeles City.

While the ‘80s may be considered as banner years when AEC experienced unprecedented growth with the increase in coverage area and computerization of the billing system, the ‘90s will be remembered as the turbulent decade of the power crisis, Mt. Pinatubo eruption and labor unrest.  It was during this period when AEC made a determined effort – and succeeded – to enhance customer service and information retrieval system.

On the fourteenth year of the new century, Angeles Electric Corporation is gearing up to meet the challenges of an industry in a state of transition.  AEC’s competitiveness in a deregulated environment is anchored on a two-pronged thrust: the enhancement of service delivery and the strengthening of operational and financial viability.

Thursday, October 8, 2020


1. CULIÁT (Angeles)

The town was inaugurated in 1829, and was given two names by its founder, Don Angel Pantaleon de Miranda: ‘Culiat’, a woody vine (Gnetum indicum Lour.) that grew in abundance in the area cleared by his tenants and future residents of the place. Another name given was “Angeles” in honor of the ‘Los Santos Angeles Custodios” (Holy Guardian Angels), titular patrons of the town, and of the founder himself. Only oldtimers use Culiat nowadays; to modern-day residents, Angeles is preferred, as it has a more cosmopolitan ring for a city.


Before the coming of the Spaniards, the town was called by its ancient name “Balayan ning Pambuit”, then located at barrio Palinlang (or Paglinglang), as the  poblacion was still forested. In vernacular, the place was originally called “dayat”, which means ‘an irrigated riceland or seedbed. Its most visible landmark is Bunduk Alaya (from ‘paralaya”, thus,  eastern mountain).

3. BACULUD (Bacolor)

The town known for its people of arts, literature and culture was called “Baculud”, from the word “macabaculud”, an upland surrounded by low-lying lands—which refers to Lubao.  Its name has the same etymological origin as the city of Bacolod.  Founded in 1571, “Bacolor” is the Hispanic name of this former capital of Pampanga.

4. CANDAUE (Candaba)

Candaba originally had an older variant name—Candaue, Candawe—which refers to a place where the municipal cemetery is now located. In old maps, the ancient settlement was marked as “Candave”, “Candava”, and eventually localized to “Candaba”. Already a rich settlement in 1571, it also has one of the oldest barrios in the province—Mandasig—founded by Mandic, the wife and first cousin of Malangsic, one of the children of Prince Balagtas, as related in the 1539 will of Pansomun.

5. CAUMPAUI (Floridablanca)

Before the town was named either after the count of Floridablanca, Jose Moniño (1728-1803) or the white pandacaqui flower, there was a certain place called “Caumpaui” existing in the area in 1847, that was established earlier by Spanish missionaries as a “hacienda” and administered from Lubao. It was transferred to the new town in 1867. Floridablanca is considered as Pampanga’s youngest town,

6. WAWÂ (Guagua)

The ancient prosperous town was originally called in “Wawâ”, which means “the mouth of a river”, based on its location. The spelling was Hispanized into “Guagua”in 1590, in much the same way that the “wa” of Palawan was written in old Spanish maps as “Paragua”.

7. BABÂ (Lubao)

“Babâ” is Kapampangan for “low”, in contrast to “baculud”. “Lubao” or “tubao”, is an extinct word meaning “to arise, or emerge, or float from water” (its modern form is the dipthong “gatao” or “gato”, to float) . “Babâ Lubao” thus means “to rise from the low depths of the water”. Old residents still refer to themselves as “tau cu Babâ”.

8. SAN MIGUEL (Masantol)

Masantol used to be a barrio of Macabebe, as recorded in the 1853 census. It was known as San Miguel, formed from the Macabebe barrios of Bebe, Bulacus, Caingin and Nigui sometime in 1877 or 1878. It was renamed Masantol, meaning  “a place full of santol (Sandoricum koetjape Merr.) fruit trees” after 1903.

9. MASICÚ (Mexico)

Before it was christened as Mexico in 1577, the place was called “Masicu”—and pronounced that way-- which may been derived from the “síko fruits” (chicos) that supposedly grew in the area, hence, “ma-sicu”. Another version had it that the town was “elbowing other towns”—hence, “macasicu”. In any case, the name was Romanized to “Mexico”, before the replacement of ‘X” with “J”, after the 19th century.

10. PÚRAC (Porac)

“Púrac”or “Pórag” was how the name of Porac was pronounced in the 1850s. “Púrac” was a flowering rattan plant (Calamus curag) which must have grown and proliferated in the area, now known as Porac.

11. CABAGSÁC (San Luis)

“Cabagsác” was the former name of the town of San Luis, a contraction of “cabág bagsac” , or “bagsácan cabag”, which means “ a drop-off place of  fruit bats”. The name was extended to “San Nicolas Cabagsác”, to honor its Spanish Augustinian priest, Fray Nicolas de Orduño.

12. VIRGEN DEL PILAR (San Simon)

Tradition has it that the former name of an Simon town was “Virgen del Pilar”, its titular patroness whose fiesta is celebrated every October 12. It is also to honor the memory of its founder, Mariano del Pilar.

13. PINPÍN (Santa Ana)

The ancient name of Santa Ana is “Pinpin” (variations: Pimping, Pingping, Pimpin) after an important person who may have lived during the time of Malangsíc. It was then placed under the advocation of Santa Ana when the Spaniards came, a name the town adopted.

14. SANTA RITA DE LELE (Santa Rita)

As a neighbor of the major town of Bacolor to where residents would go for their daily marketing and commercial transactions, the town was known as “Sta. Rita de Lele”.  It was also called “Sta. Rita Baculud”.

15. BALIWAG (Santo Tomas)

The traditional name of Santo Tomas is “Baliwag”, a new town in 1773. It is derived from the term “maliwag”,someone prone to habitual tardiness. It was rechristend Santo Tomas in 1792.

16. SASMOAN (Sexmoan)

Sasmuan was written on maps for over a century as “Sexmoan”, the Spanish transcription of the old town’s name, until 1991, when it reverted back to its vernacular version—Sasmuan. “Sasmoan” means “a place of convergence”, a meeting place where Kapampangans met when they were waging war with the Chinese. The sexual connotation of Sexmoan in English prompted the municipal government to return to the old name.

Monday, October 5, 2020

Old houses in Angeles City

Heritage homes offer soul, character and good bones. But owning and renovating one comes with caveats. A heritage designation, bestowed by federal, provincial or municipal governments, protects the features of a property that are of special heritage interest.

MANSION DE DON FLORENTINO PAMINTUAN located at Miranda corner Dalan Sto. Entierro, Barangay Sto. Rosario, Angeles City

This home of Florentino Pamintuan, said to be the first Kapampangan millionaire, was the site of the first anniversary celebration of the declaration of Philippine Independence in 1899; the waving of the Philippine flag from the second-floor window as well as the patriotic speech by President Emilio Aguinaldo is reenacted every year on June 12.

In 2010, the ownership of the house was transferred to the National Historical Commission of the Philippines through a donation. Restoration work has been done in 2012 with a budget coming from the National Government. The building now stands as a museum – Museo ng Kasaysayang Panlipunan ng Pilipinas (Philippine Social History Museum) which aims to present Filipino everyday life in the past and present, with special focus on clothing, music, food, and the life and culture of indigenous communities.

The house of the Pamintuans was one of the biggest and most beautiful houses of the country during the time it was built. A huge and heavy front door made of hardwood is the main entrance to the house. The grand entresuelo features a massive staircase of Philippine iron-wood. Its balustrade is carved in the most elegant colonial style. The whole interior of the house is a display of magnificent artwork. The carved ceiling is made of metal sheets in floral designs and most of the woodwork is intricately carved. Even the arches and the wooden buttresses that support the ceiling are ornamentally designed. The windows, walls and partitions showcase the architectural style of the period. The house also features two spiral stairways leading to a rooftop tower serving as a veranda, from where the nearby towns of Pampanga could be seen on a clear day. At the rear side of the house is another tower, probably a water cistern, because it is directly above the kitchen and the bathroom. Another massive staircase of concrete with branches in two at right angle leads to the backyard.

Heritage is the full range of our inherited traditions, monuments, objects, and culture. Most important, it is the range of contemporary activities, meanings, and behaviors that we draw from them. Heritage includes, but is much more than preserving, excavating, displaying, or restoring a collection of old things.

RAFAEL YUTUC SR. HOUSE located at Dalan Sto. Entierro, Barangay Sto. Cristo, another important landmark that stood the test of time, and bore witness to the rich history of the city.

It was built in 1923, the house originally belonged to Rafael Yutuc Sr. and Felixberta Dela Cruz. Rafael Sr. was a pharmacist who died at a very young age. Their son Rafael Yutuc Jr. & his wife Carolina Dela Cruz inherited the house. Mr. Rafael Yutuc followed his father’s footsteps and also became a pharmacist by profession. He was credited to have opened the first pharmacy in Angeles.

The house was said to be so beautiful that Juan Luna made a painting of the house, sadly the said painting’s whereabouts remain unknown at this time.

It was declared an Important Cultural Property by the National Museum in 2015 by virtue of the powers vested by Republic Act 4846, as amended by Presidential Decree 374 and Republic Act 8492.

MANUEL HENSON HOUSE (BALE CUAYAN) a historical structure that was initially intended to be a rest house for a sick boy, but was transformed into a residence, American barracks, band rehearsal area, and headquarters for Japanese invasion forces.

This was originally built in 1892 from materials such bamboo, sawali, and nipa, this structure was constructed by the grandson of the founder of Angeles, Mariano Vicente Henson y de Miranda, as a rest house for his sick son, Manuel.

MARIANO LACSON HOUSE was built in the 1930s at Dalan Sto. Entierro corner Dalan De Jesus, Barangay Sto. Cristo was taken over by the Japanese during World War II and was used as their garrison or base?

This house was also converted into a hospital — Mother of Perpetual Help Hospital — by Dr. Amelia Guiao & Dr. Luz Ayson prior their own building.

This house, owned by Mariano Lacson, a rich haciendero owning most of Sapang Maisac, Mexico, Pampanga, is declared as an Important Cultural Property by the National Museum in 2015 by virtue of the powers vested by Republic Act 4846, as amended by Presidential Decree 374 and Republic Act 8492

The Mariano Lacson House was said to have been commissioned to prominent Arch. Fernando Hizon Ocampo.

How to get to Angeles City

  • By Air: Fly direct to Angeles City via Clark International Airport (CRK) which serves international airlines such as Asiana, Cebu Pacific, Dragon Air, Emirates, Jin Air, Qatar Airways and Tiger Air, with regular flights to and from major cities such as Bangkok, Doha, Dubai, Hong Kong, Incheon, Kuala Lumpur, Macau, and Singapore. The city is also accessible from world-famous Philippine Beach Destinations like Cebu and Boracay (thru Kalibo) via Cebu Pacific’s regular flights through Clark.
  • By Land: Angeles City is about 45-minute (approximately 80 km) drive from Manila via North Luzon Expressway. Motorists coming from Metro Manila are advised to exit at the Angeles – Magalang toll plaza. Victory Liner’s daily northbound and southbound trips go through the MarQuee Terminal in Angeles City at regular intervals. Victory, Genesis and other major bus fleets bound for Baguio and Dagupan travel daily from Manila through Dau, Pampanga and drop off/ pick up passengers at the Mabalacat Central Terminal. It is best to ask the ticket officer or driver if the bus is stopping over Dau. From the terminal, one may take a jeepney or tricycle to the Clark Main Gate where passenger jeepneys bound to Angeles City are available.

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